Although potential risk of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and trihalomethanes to humans is small or unconfirmed, it is advisable to remove these wastewater-related contaminants to increase public confidence and acceptance as a precautionary principle and consequently their elimination or reduction during drinking water treatment is warranted. Experiments were conducted using the dual train pilot-scale conventional treatment plant with ozone and ultraviolet/hydrogen peroxide (UV/H2O2) with three different raw water sources. Reductions of trihalomethanes-formation potentials (THM-FPs) were 8–52%. Ozone was found to decrease THM-FPs while UV/H2O2 was found to increase THM-FPs in most of the experiments under experimental conditions. Conventional treatment poorly removed the selected PPCPs and EDCs while ozone + conventional treatment provided excellent removal. Conventional + UV/H2O2 treatment also demonstrated effective removal. However, removal of PPCPs and EDCs by conventional + UV/H2O2 treatment provided lower efficacy for Sites B and C, likely due to the presence of scavengers such as organics, bicarbonates, carbonates and particles.
- advanced oxidation processes
- endocrine disrupting compounds
- hydrogen peroxide
- pharmaceuticals and personal care products
- First received 13 May 2014.
- Accepted in revised form 23 October 2014.
- © IWA Publishing 2015