Experimental tests are carried out to evaluate the impact of treated wastewater (TWW) on the discharge of five different types of emitters which are commonly used. Two water qualities, fresh water (FW) and treated wastewater, and five types of emitters, GR, Nein (NE), Edin (ED), Corona (CO), and Rain Bird (RB) are tested. The values of chemical properties for FW show mostly low clogging potential on emitter performance. The clogging potential for TWW varied from low to medium. The exception was for pH where there was severe clogging potential for both water types. The performance of emitters was tested by measuring the emitter discharge and estimating the average emitter discharge (Qavg), coefficient of variation (CV), emission uniformity coefficient (EU), and Christiansen uniformity coefficient (CU). The average discharges for different types of emitters were analyzed and compared at P ≤ 0.05. The CO and RB emitter types did not show any signs of clogging whereas the GR, NE, and ED emitter types showed signs of clogging. The results of CV, EU, and CU values showed that the performances of emitter types GR, NE, ED were classified as low or moderate clogging potential. In contrast, the CO and RB emitters were classified as moderate or high clogging potential.
- drip irrigation
- emitter clogging
- emitter types
- treated wastewater
- water quality
- First received 23 October 2013.
- Accepted in revised form 16 February 2015.
- © IWA Publishing 2015