The purpose of this study was to synthesize granulated nanozeolite NaA particles from Phragmites australis in order to evaluate their efficacy for removal of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). The perennial wetlands grass P. australis was chosen for study because it is one of the most abundant plants found growing around oil refineries. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, and the Brunauer-Emmert-Teller theory were used for analysis of the synthesized granulated NaA zeolite nanoparticles (NaA-ZNPs). In batch and continuous experiments, such parameters as adsorbent mass, time, column height, flow rate, and pH were studied. The results were obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The optimum state for preparation of granulated nanozeolite NaA particles was found to be a molar ratio of Na2O:SiO2 of 6 in 3 days. In continuous and batch systems, the highest TPH removal efficiency achieved were 97% and 88%, respectively.
- batch and continuous studies
- NaA zeolite nanoparticles
- petroleum hydrocarbons
- Phragmites australis
- First received 16 February 2016.
- Accepted in revised form 22 April 2016.
- © IWA Publishing 2016